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Of urology the web home physicians & faculty education laboratories make a gift contact us news videos clinical conditions about the department resources immunotherapy kidney cancer / treatments & options clinical conditions bph/enlarged prostate bladder cancer erectile dysfunction | cornell urology female urology/urogynecology | cornell urology kidney cancer renal cell carcinoma (rcc) causes & risk factors evaluation staging & progression treatment options chemotherapy clinical trials future therapies immunotherapy nephrectomy radiation therapy surgical treatments treatment choices by stage recent publications what's new kidney stones male infertility minimally invasive surgery no-scalpel vasectomy center pediatric urology prostate cancer sexual medicine program testis cancer | cornell urology urinary incontinence although curative treatments for rcc involve removing the local (primary) tumor, cancer that has spread beyond the kidney requires treatment of all areas of the body (systemic therapy). buy generic viagra
Consequently, a lot of attention is now focused on a relatively new approach to treatment of rcc called immunotherapy. cheap viagra
The goal of immunotherapy is to boost the body's immune system to more effectively fight off or destroy cancer cells. best price of viagra There are several types of immunotherapy used to treat patients with metastatic rcc. buy viagra
Use of cytokines (proteins that activate the immune system) has become one of the standard treatments for metastatic rcc. generic viagra
The two cytokines most often used are interleukin-2 (il-2) and interferon-alpha. Both cytokines can cause about 20% of rccs to shrink to less than half their original size (partial or complete response). user reviews viagra daily use Unfortunately, only 4-6 % of rccs respond completely. best price of viagra In addition, many patients cannot tolerate the side effects of immunotherapy. best generic viagra in india Some studies indicate that patients treated with il-2 tend to have longer lasting responses. cheap viagra substitute Combining low doses of both cytokines seems at least as effective as high dose il-2, and the low dose combination has fewer and less severe side effects. Recent research with a combination of il-2, interferon and chemotherapy (using 5-fluorouracil) is also promising, and may offer some patients a better chance of complete remission (no remaining cancer detectable by imaging tests). viagra sales uk The side effects of cytokine therapy include low blood pressure, fluid accumulation in the lungs, kidney damage, heart attacks, intestinal bleeding, high fever, and chills. These side effects are often severe and, rarely, can be fatal. viagra online without prescription
For this reason, this treatment should be given only by doctors' experienced with this approach to rcc treatment. Cytokines can also be used to stimulate an rcc patients's immune cells that have been removed from the patient's tumor or blood stream. After cytokine treatment outside of body (in vitro), th.
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